TEAM MEMBER : Guillaume Janoyer


Mars and the birth of life on Earth.

 Our solar system is composed of a great diversity of planets and satellites with radically different properties. The case of Mars is just as unique. Indeed, its geological history was substantially the same as the Earth. At the end of the period of intensive bombardment, for a time, its geological activity released a magnetic field around the planet, ensuring the presence of an atmosphere and liquid water. But its mass not being sufficient, Mars cooled down, lost its magnetic field, its atmosphere and a part of its water was swept by the solar winds. The question of the origin of life on earth remains one of the most important question for the human kind. The planet Mars is a vestige of the origin of the history of our solar system and by extension of the origin of life. Some areas of Mars have been intact for several billion years.

Why a trip to Mars is profitable?

 The history of humanity was punctuated by several great travels and discoveries. Long before the arrival of the first Europeans in America, to the first human step on the moon in 1969 with the American mission Apollo 11: the conquest of new territories has always been synonymous with supremacy, ambition, curiosity, expansion of religious communities and technological prowess.

 The first nation to bring humans to the surface of Mars will therefore be the most technologically, economically and scientifically advanced nation and will also be advanced from a social point of view. Indeed, space exploration is an inclusive discipline that requires a combination of different knowledges that will increase the solutions to the problems and darks areas that space exploration brings. The current economic power of the United States is a consequence of their lunar exploration. Indeed, the large budget developed at the end of the 1960s for the Apollo mission has funded many new advanced technologies.

Also, in our day-to-day environment, many technologies were initially thought of by the military as a vast majority of wave communication and electronic computing systems such as computers. Funding for the military and space exploration has no direct economic impact. But it allows the development of innovative technology that, once popularised and made public, greatly improves our quality of life.

 What will be the economic consequences of the first nation to land on Mars

It is certainly possible that it will not be the work of a single nation. This exploration will be the fruit of a collective intelligence, and Mars will be a second step in space exploration after the moon.

The surface of Mars is not propicious to city construction without adaptation strategy. Indeed the constraints are multiple: low temperatures, leak of oxygen in the atmosphere, meteorite falls, very low atmospheric pressure and unhealthy cosmic radiation. Depending to its orbit, Mars receives on its surface 2 to 3 times less solar energy than on the earth. In addition, sandstorms are frequent, which further decreases this amount of energy. Solar energy must be considered as extra energy. Due to the low atmospheric pressure of Mars, about 6% of the Earth's pressure, the winds of 150 km / h measured have a power equivalent to that of a breeze. However sand can damage equipment and constructions.

The concept of the city of Hermes is to dig into the rock and transform the material thus output into building materials and resources. A lot of raw material is exploitable on Mars. Carrying this equipment out from earth would lead to an overweight of the rockets, so more fuel consumed and therefore the trip will be more expensive. In addition, the troglodyte nature of the city will protect it from meteorites, cosmic radiation and ensure a constant indoor temperature thanks to geothermal energy.

 The white cliff of Rover is located in the Meridiani Planum. It is a zone rich in gypsum and silicate which, once heated respectively to 120˚C and 800˚C produce molecules of H2O. At this place on March, for a cubic meter of rock, 8 liters of water are exploitable.

The fuel used by the BFR is composed of liquid methane and liquid oxygen. Methane can be obtained using the reaction of Paul Sabatier.

CO2 + 4H2 = CH4 + 2H2O

The CO2 is in the atmosphere that is mainly composed of it and the dihydrogen can either be transported or obtained from the water collected in the rocks. This reaction takes place at a precise pressure and temperature, however. Catalysts can be used to improve the yield.

Meridiani Planum is also rich in hematite, which is a mineral species composed of Iron (III) oxide that will be processed to produce structural steel.

Preliminary stage:

On March conditions are such that no land plant can grow. We must first develop plant varieties acclimated to soil and weather conditions in March.

On a space station orbiting the moon or directly on the moon for example.

First stage:

Launch of two Big Falcon Rocket rockets. Zeus, the first serra made up of the crew and will be in orbital parking around Mars. She will command Maïa, the second rocket that amarsira close to the white cliff of Rover (1.992˚ N 6.910˚ E). Maïa will contain all the necessary equipment for the construction of the city, the transformation of raw materials into building materials and the production of fuel fuel.

Second step:

The two running Rovers on Mars (Oportunity and Curiosity) communicate with the Earth at a time interval of 20 minutes. Because of the proximity of the two rockets, the Rovers present on the site can be more directed more easily and faster. They will examine the cliffs and determine the most suitable location to dig the cavity that will host the first Martian space research station and landing platform for Zeus.

Third step:

Once the landing platform is over, the Zeus crew can land. Beginning of the construction of the outer wall of the cavity which will allow the pressurization of the internal atmosphere. Construction of interior elements by 3D printing.

Fourth step:

Maïa takes off for the next stage of colonization of the solar system. The presence of two rockets on the site also allows the possibility of a forced departure while one of the two is traveling.